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Walnut Canyon National Monument is a United States National Monument located about 10 mi (16 km) southeast of downtown Flagstaff, Arizona, just off Interstate 40. The canyon rim lies at 6,690 ft (2,040 m); the canyon's floor is 350 ft lower. A 0.9 mi (1.4 km) long loop trail descends 185 ft (56 m) into the canyon passing 25 cliff dwelling rooms constructed by the Sinagua, a pre-Columbian cultural group that lived in Walnut Canyon from about 1100 to 1250 CE. Other contemporary habitations of the Sinagua people are preserved in the nearby Tuzigoot and Montezuma Castle national monuments.

The Sinagua, who inhabitanted the dwellings in Walnut Canyon, left mysteriously around 1250 CE. It is thought that the Sinagua left because of fear of neighboring tribes or droughts, but it is not certain. The disappearance of the Sinagua left over 80 cliff dwellings behind. The dwellings themselves were small but large enough for the inhabitants to still be able to cook and sleep. Most of the cliff dwelling rooms are situated near the loop trail, typically slightly above the trail and immediately outside the loop itself. A typical room might have been the dwelling of a single family, and might measure approximately two meters high by six meters long by three meters deep. Because of the area's dry climate, the water present in the canyon was essential for its inhabitants over 700 years ago as it is for the animal and plant life that exists there today.

There are many more dwellings to be seen up close in the canyon just east of the Monument, although it is illegal to actually enter the canyon because of the park's rules and regulations.

Walnut Canyon was proclaimed a national monument on November 30, 1915 by President Woodrow Wilson in order to preserve the ancient cliff dwellings. It was transferred from the USDA Forest Service to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933. As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the national monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. At Walnut Canyon, there are trails for tourists to get a close view of the dwellings.

Walnut Canyon lies on the Colorado Plateau and cuts through the Permian Kaibab Limestone, which exposes the Toroweap Formation and Coconino Sandstone. The Kaibab formation also forms the rim of the Grand Canyon. Crossbedding is present in the Coconino Sandstone.

The Walnut Canyon site contains Walnut Creek, which carved a 600 foot deep canyon that flows east. The creek joins into the Little Colorado River on its way to the Grand Canyon. The upper third of Walnut Canyon's walls contain Kaibab limestone that varies in layers and hardness. Many layers of the limestone eroded, creating alcoves that the Sinagua Indians used as cave-dwellings.

Today a variety of archeological and natural resources are preserved on approximately 3600 acres.

Park entrance road, trails, and Visitor Center are open all year, except December 25. From May till October the monument is open from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. MST and is open from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. MST the rest of the year. Entry to park trails closes 1 hour before the monument closes.

The Walnut Canyon site is near Flagstaff. It is 7 miles east of I-40 and 3 miles south of exit 204. The park has a museum and a small visitor center that sits on top of a cliff. The site has ancient dwellings that were built in U-shapes in the canyon, where the creek surrounds 3 sides. There are other ruins in the surround area which are not open to the public. Other dwellings of the Sinagua people can be found in the nearby Tuzigoot and Montezuma Castle monuments.

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