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GIRONA, CATALONIA

Girona (Gerona, in Spanish) is a province of north-eastern Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia. It is bordered by the provinces of Barcelona and Lleida, and by France and the Mediterranean Sea.

687,331 people (2006) live in the province. Its capital is Girona (pop. 89,890). List of towns in Girona province include Figueres (pop. 39,641), Blanes (pop. 37,819), Lloret de Mar (pop. 32,728), Olot (31,932) , Salt (pop. 28,017), Palafrugell (pop. 21,307) and Sant Feliu de Guíxols (pop. 20,867), as well as some significant and historical towns such as Banyoles, Palamós, Cadaqués, Ripoll, Camprodon or Puigcerdà.

This province has 221 municipalities. The municipality of Llívia, which is an exclave separated from the rest of Spain and surrounded by France, is part of this province.

Girona is also the capital of the Girona province. Girona is located in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter and Onyar. It is the capital of the Spanish province of the same name and of the Catalan comarca of the Gironès. The recorded population in 2005 was 86,672.

The first inhabitants in the region were Iberians; Girona is the ancient Gerunda, a city of the Ausetani. Later, the Romans built a citadel there, which was given the name of Gerunda. The Visigoths ruled in Girona until it was conquered by the Moors. Finally, Charlemagne reconquered it in 785 and made it one of the fourteen original countships of Catalonia. Thus it was wrested temporarily from the Moors, who were driven out finally in 1015. Guifré I incorporated Girona to the countship of Barcelona in 878. Alfonso I of Aragón declared Girona to be a city in the 11th century. The ancient countship later became a duchy (1351) when king Pere III d' Aragó gave the title of Duke to his first-born son, Joan. In 1414, King Ferran I in turn gave the title of Prince of Girona to his first-born son, Alfons. The title is currently carried by Prince Felipe, Prince of Asturias, the first Borbón to do so.

The 12th century saw a flourishing of the Jewish community of Girona, with one of the most important Kabbalistic schools in Europe. The Rabbi of Girona, Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi (better known as Nahmanides or Ramban) was appointed Great Rabbi of Catalonia. The history of the Jewish community of Girona ended in 1492, when the Catholic Kings expelled all the Jews from Spain. Today, the Jewish ghetto or Call is one of the best preserved in Europe and is a major tourist attraction. On the north side of the old city is the Montjuïc (or hill of the Jews in medieval Catalan), where an important religious cemetery was located.


Unofficial flag of Girona.Girona has undergone twenty-five sieges and been captured seven times. It was besieged by the French royal armies under Marshal Hocquisicourt in 1653, under Marshal Bellefonds in 1684, and twice in 1694 under de Noailles. In May, 1809, it was besieged by 35,000 French Napoleonic troops under Vergier, Augereau and St. Cyr, and held out obstinately under the leadership of Alvarez until disease and famine compelled it to capitulate, 12 December. Finally, the French conquered the city in 1809, after 7 months of siege. Girona was center of Ter department during French rule between 1809-1813. The defensive city walls were demolished at the end of the 19th century to allow for the expansion of the city. In recent years, the missing parts of the city walls on the eastern side of the city have been reconstructed. Called the Passeig de la Muralla it now forms a tourist route around the old city.

Map of Girona:

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