Burgos is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is bordered by the provinces of Palencia, Cantabria, Vizcaya, Álava, La Rioja, Soria, Segovia, and Valladolid. Its capital is the city of Burgos.
The province has an area of 14,300 km² and a population of 352,273 (2002) of whom nearly half live in the capital. The only large towns apart from Burgos are Miranda de Ebro and Aranda de Duero. Many of the province's 371 municipalities have fewer than 100 inhabitants. See List of municipalities in Burgos.
The most important rivers in the province are Ebro and Duero. The river Duero is in the south of the province and around it there is one of the best vineyards the 'Ribera de Duero'. The north and south-east are mountainous.
The Celtiberian region that became Burgos was inhabited by the Morgobos, Turmodigos, Berones and perhaps also the Pelendones, the last inhabitants of the northern part of the Celtiberian region; the principal cities, according to Ptolemy, included: Brabum, Sisara, Deobrigula, Ambisna Segiasamon and Verovesca (briviesca). In Roman times it belonged to Hispania Citerior ("Hither Spain") and then to Hispania Tarraconensis. In the fifth century the Visigoths drove back the Suevi, then the Arabs occupied all of Castile in the eighth century, although for only a brief period and left no trace of their occupation. Alfonso III the Great, king of León reconquered it around the middle of the ninth century, and built many castles for the defence of Christendom, which was then extended through the reconquest of lost territory. The region came to be known as Castile (Latin castella), i.e. "land of castles". In the eleventh century its city, Burgos, became the capital of the Kingdom of Castile.
Map of Burgos: